Gluten is a protein found in wheat, barley and rye, as well as foods made from these grains, Because gluten is a protein, it has nutritional value. Gluten also makes foods taste better and improves their texture, so it is added to many processed foods.
In celiac disease the immune system attacks the gluten proteins (gliadin), but it also attacks an enzyme in the cells of the digestive tract called tissue transglutaminase, which results in omitting , diarrhoea, and abdominal pain.
There is another disorder called gluten sensitivity, which is much more common. Although there is no clear definition of gluten sensitivity, it means having some sort of adverse reaction to gluten and your symptom will improve when you start gluten-free diet.
If you have adverse reactions to gluten, then it is called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. In non-celiac gluten sensitivity, there is no attack on the body’s own tissues. However many of the symptoms are similar to those in celiac disease, including bloating, stomach pain, fatigue, diarrhoea, as well as pain in the bones and joints.
Some research indicates that about 0.5 and 1.0 percent of people in the US and UK are sensitive to gluten due to celiac disease, which constitutes an abnormal immune reaction to partially digested gliadin.
Going gluten-free can be difficult at first since you’ll need to learn to read labels of the packets that you bought and identify foods without gluten. If you are allergic then consult your dietitian, they can help you to plan a nutritious gluten-free diet to eliminate symptoms of celiac disease or non-celiac gluten sensitivity. When eating out, ask your server what ingredients are used in food, whether this food is gluten free..
Under regulation of Codex alimentarious and WHO every producer have to mention whether product contains gluten or gluten free on the packaging, To inform consumer about gluten in the product they are consuming.