Friday, September 27, 2013

Food Process Facts

  1. Winterization of oil is a process of removing of the higher melting point parts from oil like waxes or triglycerides by slowly cooling vegetable oils and felling saturated glycerides from the solvent.
  2. Degumming is process of The removal of gum from a material, especially the removal of sericin from silk or phospholipids etc. from vegetable oils.

Odor an taste

  1. While salt and sugar can technically be considered flavorants that enhance salty and sweet tastes, usually only compounds that enhance umami, as well as other secondary flavors are considered and referred to as taste flavorants. Artificial sweeteners are also technically flavorants.
  2. Ester produces artificial flavor. 

Isoamyl acetateBanana
BenzaldehydeBitter almond
Cinnamic aldehydeCinnamon
Ethyl propionateFruity
Methyl anthranilateGrape
Ethyl decadienoatePear
Allyl hexanoatePineapple
Ethyl maltolSugar, Cotton candy
Methyl salicylateWintergreen

3. Many esters have distinctive fruit-like odors, and many occur naturally in the essential oils of plants. This has also led to their commonplace use in artificial flavorings and fragrances when those odors aim to be mimicked.
Ester NameFormulaOdor or occurrence
Allyl hexanoateProp-2-enyl hexanoate.svgpineapple
Benzyl acetateBenzyl acetate-structure.svgpearstrawberryjasmine
Bornyl acetateBornyl acetate.svgpine
Butyl acetateButylacetat.svgapplehoney bee
Butyl butyrateButyl butyrate2.svgpineapple
Ethyl acetateEthyl acetate2.svgnail polish remover
model paint
model airplane glue
Ethyl butyrateEthyl butyrate2.svgbananapineapple,
Ethyl hexanoateEthyl-hexanoate.svgpineapple,
 waxy-green banana
Ethyl cinnamateEthyl-cinnamate.svgcinnamon
Ethyl formateEthyl-formate.svglemonrumstrawberry
Ethyl heptanoateEthyl-heptanoate.svgapricotcherrygraperaspberry
Ethyl isovalerateEthyl-isovalerate.svgapple
Ethyl lactateEthyl lactate.svgbuttercream
Ethyl nonanoateEthyl-nonanoate.svggrape
Ethyl pentanoateEthyl valerate.svgapple
Geranyl acetateGeranyl-acetate.svggeranium
Geranyl butyrateGeranyl butyrate.svgcherry
Geranyl pentanoateGeranyl pentanoate.svgapple
Isobutyl acetateIsobutyl-acetate.svgcherryraspberry
Isobutyl formateIsobutyl formate.svgraspberry
Isoamyl acetateIsoamyl acetate.svgpearbanana
 (flavoring in Pear drops)
Isopropyl acetateIsopropyl acetate.svgfruity
Linalyl acetateLinalyl acetate.svglavendersage
Linalyl butyrateLinalyl butyrate.svgpeach
Linalyl formateLinalyl formate.svgapplepeach
Methyl acetateMethyl-acetate.svgglue
Methyl anthranilateMethyl anthranilate.svggrapejasmine
Methyl benzoateMethyl benzoate.svgfruity, ylang ylangfeijoa
Methyl butyrate (methyl butanoate)Buttersauremethylester.svgpineappleapplestrawberry
Methyl cinnamateMethyl cinnamate.svgstrawberry
Methyl pentanoate (methyl valerate)Methyl pentanoate.svgflowery
Methyl phenylacetateMethyl phenylacetate.svghoney
Methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen)Methyl salicylate.svgModern root beerwintergreen
Germolene and Ralgex 
ointments (UK)
Nonyl caprylateNonyl caprylate.svgorange
Octyl acetateOctyl acetate.svgfruity-orange
Octyl butyrateOctyl butyrate.svgparsnip
Amyl acetate (pentyl acetate)Amyl acetate.svgapplebanana
Pentyl butyrate (amyl butyrate)Pentyl butyrate.svgapricotpearpineapple
Pentyl hexanoate (amyl caproate)Pentyl hexanoate.svgapplepineapple
Pentyl pentanoate (amyl valerate)Pentyl pentanoate.svgapple
Propyl acetatePropyl acetate.svgpear
Propyl hexanoatePropyl-hexanoate.svgblackberry, pineapple,
Propyl isobutyratePropyl isobutyrate.svgrum
Terpenyl butyrateTerpenyl butyrate.svgcherry

Food Science Facts

  1. Fennel is Sauf सौंफ़.
  2. Asafoetida is (Heeng) हींग in Hindi.
  3. Monosodium glutamate (MSG), also known as sodium glutamate, is the sodium salt of glutamic acid.  MSG can enhance other taste-active compounds, improving the overall taste of certain foods. MSG mixes well with meat, fish, poultry, many vegetables, sauces, soups, and marinades.
  4. Dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) is a colorless liquid with a sharp odor.Its primary use is as a beverage preservative and or processing aid.
  5. Sharp Smell of onion is due to sulphur.
  6. Strong smell of oranges is due to Limonene, which is is a colourless liquid hydrocarbon classified as a cyclic terpene.
  7. Over 200 species of plants produce linalool, mainly from the families Lamiaceae (mints, scented herbs), Lauraceae (laurels, cinnamon, rosewood), and Rutaceae (citrus fruits), but also birch trees and other plants, from tropical to boreal climate zones. It has also been found in some fungi.
  8. Enfleurage is a process that uses odorless fats that are solid at room temperature to capture the fragrant compounds exuded by plants.
  9. Lauric acid comprises about half of the fatty acid content in coconut oil, laurel oil, and in palm kernel oil (not to be confused with palm oil), Otherwise it is relatively uncommon. It is also found in human breast milk (6.2% of total fat), cow's milk (2.9%), and goat's milk (3.1%).
  10. CBR is a non-lauric Cocoa Butter Replacer (CBR) derived from palm oil.
  11. Lard is pig fat in both its rendered and unrendered forms. Lard was commonly used in many cuisines as a cooking fat or shortening, or as a spread similar to butter.
  12. Ethylene is ripening agent in fruits. Acetylene acts like ethylene and accelerates the ripening process, but is inadvisable because calcium carbide (producer of Acetylene) has carcinogenic properties. Use of calcium carbide is banned in certain countries.

Nature of cheese industry in India and Nepal regarding the market potential & scope of the industry in domestic and international circle.

The organised cheese industry in India is at best in its nascent stage
Accounting for under 1% of total dairy production and largely limited to urban consumption. Though cheese was first marketed under the brand name 'Amul', from the popular Amul butter stable in the late 1970s, it attained an identity of its own only as late as 1990s.

Cheese Industry in India as of 2006, is valued at Rs 250 crore (US$ 50 million)
The organized cheese industry in India as of 2006, is valued at Rs 250 crore (US$ 50 million), with a volume in excess of 8000 tonnes. The industry growth rate is estimated at about 10%-12% per year in terms of volume and 16%-17% per year in value terms. Current household cheese penetration is 5%, with about 50% of consumption being limited to cities. Mumbai and Delhi together capture half of the cheese market. Within cheese products, around 60% of the market is dominated by processed cheese, 30% by cheese spreads and the remaining 10% by flavoured and specialty cheese.